The three dimensional visualization of Lateral Force with Slip Angle and Normal Load is shown in the diagrams. The chart on the left is for pure lateral force (zero slip ratio). The chart on the right is for -5% slip ratio.

The importance of looking at tyre data and it's analysis as a response surface and not just as a two dimensional representation, can clearly be shown from these charts. Response surface methodology (RSM) is an invaluable tool when validating tyre data. It gives a complete tyre performance envelope picture for given set of parameter inputs. As we will see later, trends and optimization of parameters can be obtained quickly, as humans are extremely apt at assimilating three dimensional shapes in this way. The curvature of the surface and its changes in shape as the input parameters change is what makes chassis tuning possible. It is the understanding of how these characteristic changes in the tyres response effect the car in motion that provides the foundation of vehicle dynamics.

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The importance of looking at tyre data and it's analysis as a response surface and not just as a two dimensional representation, can clearly be shown from these charts. Response surface methodology (RSM) is an invaluable tool when validating tyre data. It gives a complete tyre performance envelope picture for given set of parameter inputs. As we will see later, trends and optimization of parameters can be obtained quickly, as humans are extremely apt at assimilating three dimensional shapes in this way. The curvature of the surface and its changes in shape as the input parameters change is what makes chassis tuning possible. It is the understanding of how these characteristic changes in the tyres response effect the car in motion that provides the foundation of vehicle dynamics.