Combined forces

The combined forces with slip ratio and slip angle are shown in the diagram. Tyre force is the total force the tyre can produce in any direction. Note that only longitudinal (braking) and positive slip angles have been displayed. It can be seen that the maximum tyre force values occur with just pure lateral or pure longitudinal configurations and that the pure lateral has the maximum value in this case. Camber angle variations can alter this picture considerably.
Combined forces - White-Smoke

This is a three dimensional representation of the traditional traction ellipse. All we require is to add the other three quadrants. Again we can easily assimilate changes in the input parameters. As we will see later in a four tyre car model, optimization of design or race engineering changes can be easily evaluated.

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